The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Government Guaranteed Job/Standard of Living (2), 7-point scale 1972-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Govt. See to Job/Std. (1,2,3)'


  % OF GROUP: '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 27 21 22 16 26 21 27 24 22 28 23 23 20 28 21 ** 29 23 27
Females 28 27 26 18 26 28 30 25 26 32 29 33 28 33 22 ** 33 31 30
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 23 21 21 14 20 20 24 20 18 25 22 23 20 25 21 ** 26 20 24
Black non-Hispanic 65 63 51 36 56 55 56 50 49 49 44 51 43 54 27 ** 47 54 43
Hispanic 30 26 33 34 49 46 38 22 37 42 39 40 34 41 27 ** 35 39 38
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 35 18 24 28 29 36 35 25 39 45 27 24 37 41 14 ** 40 41 34
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 35 28 32 24 35 33 34 34 27 37 30 31 27 43 16 ** 25 39 40
High School Diploma 25 25 23 16 24 24 28 26 28 30 27 31 28 28 24 ** 34 28 32
Some College, no Degree 24 22 18 14 25 26 29 20 18 30 25 26 21 34 24 ** 28 30 26
College Degree/ Post-grad 30 24 23 19 24 21 26 22 21 28 26 23 21 29 16 ** 30 22 26
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 40 28 38 29 35 38 46 36 39 42 37 37 36 34 28 ** 42 37 35
Income 17-33 Percentile 34 33 29 21 27 34 33 26 30 34 26 32 28 37 25 ** 31 43 39
Income 34-67 Percentile 26 24 22 16 28 21 28 25 23 30 28 26 23 30 20 ** 31 22 28
Income 68-95 Percentile 21 21 19 12 21 21 22 17 17 24 21 26 17 25 18 ** 22 20 21
Income 96-100 Percentile 14 13 14 10 16 15 14 11 13 11 13 22 22 30 25 ** 20 9 19
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 25 23 18 15 21 21 27 18 20 28 24 24 20 33 17 ** 28 ** **
White Collar 27 22 22 18 22 24 27 19 20 30 23 29 24 26 24 ** 25 ** **
Blue Collar 32 28 28 19 30 28 33 29 31 34 28 31 26 31 25 ** 38 ** **
Unskilled 32 35 25 31 33 18 20 40 30 36 37 29 48 52 33 ** 43 ** **
Farmers 24 13 24 14 15 31 26 24 24 22 14 20 29 23 0 ** 35 ** **
Housewives 22 23 23 15 28 24 24 27 20 23 29 26 23 26 24 ** 24 ** **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 27 31 27 20 31 26 29 27 26 29 28 37 28 32 23 ** 31 30 29
Non-Union Households 27 23 23 16 24 25 29 24 24 31 26 26 24 30 22 ** 31 27 28
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 31 25 25 19 29 25 34 24 28 35 28 30 28 33 19 ** 32 25 27
Nonsouth 26 25 24 16 24 25 27 25 23 28 26 27 23 29 24 ** 30 29 29
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 42
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 38 38 31 30 31 ** 41 32 33
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** 28 30 33 39 27 29 37 33 33 28 33 21 ** 30 31 28
Born 1943-1958 33 33 26 18 28 29 29 24 26 30 26 27 23 32 21 ** 30 24 25
Born 1927-1942 24 17 23 13 23 22 25 27 23 27 21 26 21 25 17 ** 25 19 22
Born 1911-1926 23 23 21 16 26 20 25 22 19 23 20 15 20 26 21 ** 25 23 12
Born 1895-1910 30 22 25 19 20 19 25 25 14 16 20 16 21 0 0 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 24 27 23 23 11 14 33 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 34 32 32 23 35 31 37 31 34 38 34 37 32 38 28 ** 42 39 41
Independents 27 24 15 18 21 23 30 24 22 27 27 25 31 31 23 ** 40 23 29
Republicans (incl leaners) 18 13 15 7 14 14 20 15 14 21 15 19 13 19 12 ** 17 13 14
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals 46 46 39 29 42 39 43 34 38 46 41 42 35 45 25 ** 50 45 44
Moderates 24 19 23 11 24 21 28 20 24 31 26 29 26 30 21 ** 38 26 31
Conservatives 17 15 12 11 14 17 19 17 17 20 16 17 13 22 7 ** 12 16 14

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 4A.4b.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)