The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Government Guaranteed Job/Standard of Living (2), 7-point scale 1972-2008
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Each Person on Own (5,6,7)'


  % OF GROUP: '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Males 44 47 46 50 47 49 45 53 48 45 48 49 52 40 56 ** 47 51
Females 36 30 33 38 36 35 32 42 39 31 36 37 42 31 45 ** 36 37
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Whites 43 40 43 47 45 46 42 52 48 41 46 46 52 40 52 ** 47 50
Blacks 6 9 12 20 17 13 15 22 24 25 21 19 29 17 32 ** 23 22
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 29 30 26 28 28 26 25 35 32 27 30 34 31 12 25 ** 37 34
High School Diploma 39 35 35 40 36 39 34 43 37 34 35 35 41 32 45 ** 37 37
Some College, no Degree 48 43 49 53 47 44 42 53 50 38 45 46 50 35 52 ** 45 47
College Degree/ Post-grad 45 46 50 57 54 52 50 54 54 53 52 57 57 46 64 ** 46 53
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Income 0-16 Percentile 26 25 19 23 29 25 20 35 27 21 26 30 30 30 37 ** 28 27
Income 17-33 Percentile 33 28 30 39 36 35 31 42 37 30 36 29 38 28 41 ** 38 34
Income 34-67 Percentile 41 40 38 45 41 42 36 49 43 37 40 45 49 34 53 ** 40 44
Income 68-95 Percentile 45 43 51 54 48 50 50 54 54 48 53 52 58 43 61 ** 53 58
Income 96-100 Percentile 60 65 64 64 64 61 63 62 60 65 61 55 59 42 50 ** 58 68
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Professionals 46 45 53 60 53 48 48 61 52 48 49 51 54 40 60 ** 43 **
White Collar 44 37 43 45 43 46 39 47 51 39 46 44 49 34 52 ** 49 **
Blue Collar 34 33 33 36 34 38 34 43 35 32 37 38 40 32 45 ** 36 **
Unskilled 24 38 28 34 28 41 33 23 26 27 32 28 28 18 39 ** 39 **
Farmers 49 65 37 41 67 36 42 48 48 57 49 39 35 41 34 ** 51 **
Housewives 38 31 32 37 33 35 32 36 35 35 34 38 48 37 38 ** 41 **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Union Households 38 34 36 38 37 41 38 47 36 35 40 37 42 31 43 ** 43 44
Non-Union Households 40 38 39 45 43 42 38 47 44 38 42 43 47 36 51 ** 41 44
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
South 39 33 32 40 39 42 33 47 42 36 38 39 44 34 48 ** 38 50
Nonsouth 39 39 41 45 42 41 40 47 43 38 43 44 48 36 51 ** 43 40
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 37
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 46 20 34 36 38 ** 30 44
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** 28 27 33 31 41 41 33 36 39 44 34 49 ** 43 45
Born 1943-1958 37 28 36 45 39 41 39 49 45 41 45 45 53 36 56 ** 46 50
Born 1927-1942 43 46 43 47 50 45 45 50 43 41 44 49 46 36 54 ** 47 46
Born 1911-1926 42 41 42 43 40 44 38 49 39 36 42 45 43 32 45 ** 38 **
Born 1895-1910 37 37 32 37 42 36 32 42 46 40 40 38 44 29 68 ** ** **
Born before 1895 23 33 41 31 33 43 33 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Democrats (incl leaners) 33 29 31 36 31 31 28 38 32 30 30 31 34 24 40 ** 25 28
Independents 38 39 39 38 41 41 30 41 34 28 34 28 39 28 48 ** 38 38
Republicans (incl leaners) 49 50 50 60 56 59 53 63 58 52 59 60 65 52 66 ** 61 67
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Liberals 30 27 32 42 28 31 31 39 35 31 34 30 38 25 40 ** 21 28
Moderates 42 36 39 44 35 42 35 48 43 37 40 37 40 34 47 ** 36 39
Conservatives 58 60 62 66 63 60 58 63 59 58 60 61 69 52 70 ** 67 69

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 4A.4b.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 05AUG10)