The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Government Services and Spending 1982-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'More Services/Spending (5,6,7)'


  % OF GROUP: '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 22 28 38 29 34 27 22 24 35 31 ** 39 37 26
Females 27 31 45 32 40 33 33 32 43 46 ** 47 45 29
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 21 27 37 27 33 27 26 25 35 36 ** 41 38 23
Black non-Hispanic 49 47 64 45 55 48 41 42 54 46 ** 55 54 45
Hispanic 29 34 55 44 47 33 29 39 53 44 ** 43 43 36
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 36 32 38 34 37 40 12 23 38 50 ** 42 55 27
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 22 26 40 28 31 32 23 38 36 27 ** 49 49 44
High School Diploma 23 28 45 31 37 30 30 28 40 42 ** 39 39 27
Some College, no Degree 28 33 41 33 40 32 26 29 43 41 ** 45 39 26
College Degree/ Post-grad 26 30 36 28 38 29 25 26 35 35 ** 46 46 27
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 30 35 48 37 43 37 37 41 49 54 ** 49 48 35
Income 17-33 Percentile 27 30 46 35 41 31 33 31 41 39 ** 48 53 37
Income 34-67 Percentile 26 29 42 31 37 32 26 27 37 36 ** 44 37 25
Income 68-95 Percentile 25 30 34 29 36 27 23 20 38 41 ** 38 39 21
Income 96-100 Percentile 17 26 38 17 31 24 27 27 38 28 ** 40 32 25
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 24 30 35 29 39 30 23 26 35 36 ** 43 ** **
White Collar 21 28 41 31 34 28 32 26 38 44 ** 39 ** **
Blue Collar 28 32 47 31 41 32 30 28 38 37 ** 47 ** **
Unskilled 44 40 54 45 29 41 23 50 40 35 ** 47 ** **
Farmers 19 18 26 21 26 17 24 25 39 54 ** 44 ** **
Housewives 21 25 43 28 36 31 27 27 41 42 ** 38 ** **
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 33 36 48 34 38 34 31 30 45 51 ** 49 45 30
Non-Union Households 22 28 40 30 37 30 27 28 38 37 ** 42 41 27
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 21 29 40 29 38 28 27 30 41 37 ** 40 38 28
Nonsouth 26 30 43 32 37 31 28 27 39 40 ** 44 43 27
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 28
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** 31 20 45 52 50 ** 54 46 29
Born 1959-1974 29 38 47 40 43 36 31 32 44 42 ** 44 43 28
Born 1943-1958 29 31 44 33 40 33 30 25 39 39 ** 39 37 27
Born 1927-1942 24 28 40 24 33 26 23 25 31 31 ** 38 38 22
Born 1911-1926 20 25 36 23 28 20 22 20 28 29 ** 33 33 21
Born 1895-1910 16 20 29 25 33 25 25 23 43 29 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 14 33 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 33 40 52 41 47 39 34 38 45 51 ** 56 54 43
Independents 20 25 39 29 31 27 30 22 46 44 ** 43 40 22
Republicans (incl leaners) 11 18 28 20 26 19 19 17 30 21 ** 29 24 10
  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals 48 45 53 51 55 49 48 47 53 56 ** 62 64 50
Moderates 26 31 45 35 38 31 27 27 35 33 ** 46 48 25
Conservatives 16 20 28 23 28 22 16 18 32 24 ** 26 27 14

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 4A.5.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)