The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Democratic Presidential Candidate Strong Leader 1980-2008
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Quite Well/ Extremely Well'


  % OF GROUP: '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Males 31 ** 43 ** 50 ** 58 ** 54 ** 54 ** 48 62
Females 40 ** 53 ** 62 ** 66 ** 66 ** 62 ** 56 67
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Whites non-Hispanic 32 ** 44 ** 52 ** 58 ** 55 ** 55 ** 45 57
Black non-Hispanic 72 ** 81 ** 74 ** 83 ** 88 ** 79 ** 84 95
Hispanic 43 ** 63 ** 75 ** 72 ** 73 ** 66 ** 59 83
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 20 ** 42 ** 73 ** 60 ** 47 ** 56 ** 52 76
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 59 ** 75 ** 68 ** 77 ** 71 ** 67 ** 66 86
High School Diploma 41 ** 53 ** 60 ** 66 ** 65 ** 62 ** 56 64
Some College, no Degree 28 ** 42 ** 48 ** 61 ** 57 ** 55 ** 48 65
College Degree/ Post-grad 17 ** 34 ** 56 ** 55 ** 54 ** 56 ** 50 66
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Income 0-16 Percentile 54 ** 67 ** 68 ** 76 ** 74 ** 68 ** 63 81
Income 17-33 Percentile 40 ** 62 ** 64 ** 72 ** 69 ** 62 ** 63 73
Income 34-67 Percentile 36 ** 47 ** 58 ** 61 ** 60 ** 53 ** 51 62
Income 68-95 Percentile 27 ** 37 ** 50 ** 54 ** 51 ** 55 ** 46 58
Income 96-100 Percentile 14 ** 33 ** 30 ** 51 ** 48 ** 50 ** 35 45
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Professionals 23 ** 39 ** 55 ** 56 ** 55 ** 56 ** 53 **
White Collar 37 ** 45 ** 54 ** 63 ** 61 ** 62 ** 48 **
Blue Collar 42 ** 57 ** 60 ** 67 ** 66 ** 58 ** 54 **
Unskilled 34 ** 56 ** 64 ** 53 ** 64 ** 68 ** 73 **
Farmers 41 ** 43 ** 47 ** 54 ** 54 ** 46 ** 70 **
Housewives 46 ** 52 ** 61 ** 67 ** 59 ** 64 ** 41 **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Union Households 38 ** 53 ** 58 ** 68 ** 70 ** 63 ** 58 66
Non-Union Households 36 ** 48 ** 57 ** 62 ** 59 ** 58 ** 51 65
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
South 44 ** 55 ** 63 ** 65 ** 63 ** 56 ** 53 59
Nonsouth 34 ** 47 ** 54 ** 61 ** 60 ** 60 ** 52 70
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** 77 ** 63 ** 64 ** 67 76
Born 1959-1974 38 ** 54 ** 58 ** 62 ** 60 ** 54 ** 50 66
Born 1943-1958 34 ** 43 ** 55 ** 58 ** 59 ** 57 ** 43 58
Born 1927-1942 28 ** 48 ** 54 ** 64 ** 61 ** 58 ** 50 54
Born 1911-1926 41 ** 54 ** 63 ** 69 ** 68 ** 72 ** 71 68
Born 1895-1910 52 ** 56 ** 65 ** 74 ** 51 ** 81 ** ** **
Born before 1895 44 ** 50 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Democrats (incl leaners) 51 ** 65 ** 77 ** 83 ** 83 ** 79 ** 82 86
Independents 32 ** 49 ** 49 ** 55 ** 55 ** 56 ** 51 63
Republicans (incl leaners) 15 ** 29 ** 36 ** 37 ** 32 ** 31 ** 17 38
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Liberals 39 ** 51 ** 64 ** 76 ** 77 ** 73 ** 81 87
Moderates 35 ** 53 ** 59 ** 64 ** 67 ** 63 ** 58 68
Conservatives 23 ** 32 ** 45 ** 45 ** 37 ** 36 ** 24 42

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 7C.4.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 02NOV15)