The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Democratic Presidential Candidate Strong Leader 1980-2008
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Not Too Well/ Not Well at All'


  % OF GROUP: '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Males 69 ** 57 ** 50 ** 42 ** 46 ** 46 ** 52 38
Females 60 ** 47 ** 38 ** 34 ** 34 ** 38 ** 44 33
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Whites non-Hispanic 68 ** 56 ** 48 ** 42 ** 45 ** 45 ** 55 43
Black non-Hispanic 28 ** 19 ** 26 ** 17 ** 12 ** 21 ** 16 5
Hispanic 57 ** 37 ** 25 ** 28 ** 27 ** 34 ** 41 17
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 80 ** 58 ** 27 ** 40 ** 53 ** 44 ** 48 24
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 41 ** 25 ** 32 ** 23 ** 29 ** 33 ** 34 14
High School Diploma 59 ** 47 ** 40 ** 34 ** 35 ** 38 ** 44 36
Some College, no Degree 72 ** 58 ** 52 ** 39 ** 43 ** 45 ** 52 35
College Degree/ Post-grad 83 ** 66 ** 44 ** 45 ** 46 ** 44 ** 50 34
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Income 0-16 Percentile 46 ** 33 ** 32 ** 24 ** 26 ** 32 ** 37 19
Income 17-33 Percentile 60 ** 38 ** 36 ** 28 ** 31 ** 38 ** 37 27
Income 34-67 Percentile 64 ** 53 ** 42 ** 39 ** 40 ** 47 ** 49 38
Income 68-95 Percentile 73 ** 63 ** 50 ** 46 ** 49 ** 45 ** 54 42
Income 96-100 Percentile 86 ** 67 ** 70 ** 49 ** 52 ** 50 ** 65 55
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Professionals 77 ** 61 ** 45 ** 44 ** 45 ** 44 ** 47 **
White Collar 63 ** 55 ** 46 ** 37 ** 39 ** 38 ** 52 **
Blue Collar 59 ** 43 ** 40 ** 33 ** 34 ** 42 ** 46 **
Unskilled 66 ** 44 ** 36 ** 47 ** 36 ** 32 ** 27 **
Farmers 59 ** 57 ** 53 ** 46 ** 46 ** 54 ** 30 **
Housewives 54 ** 48 ** 39 ** 33 ** 41 ** 36 ** 59 **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Union Households 62 ** 47 ** 42 ** 32 ** 30 ** 37 ** 42 34
Non-Union Households 64 ** 52 ** 43 ** 38 ** 41 ** 42 ** 49 35
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
South 56 ** 45 ** 37 ** 35 ** 37 ** 45 ** 47 41
Nonsouth 66 ** 53 ** 46 ** 39 ** 40 ** 40 ** 48 30
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** 23 ** 37 ** 36 ** 33 25
Born 1959-1974 62 ** 46 ** 42 ** 38 ** 40 ** 46 ** 51 34
Born 1943-1958 66 ** 57 ** 45 ** 42 ** 41 ** 43 ** 57 42
Born 1927-1942 72 ** 52 ** 46 ** 36 ** 39 ** 42 ** 50 46
Born 1911-1926 59 ** 46 ** 37 ** 31 ** 32 ** 28 ** 29 32
Born 1895-1910 48 ** 44 ** 35 ** 26 ** 49 ** 19 ** ** **
Born before 1895 56 ** 50 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Democrats (incl leaners) 49 ** 35 ** 23 ** 17 ** 17 ** 21 ** 18 14
Independents 68 ** 51 ** 51 ** 45 ** 45 ** 44 ** 49 37
Republicans (incl leaners) 85 ** 71 ** 64 ** 63 ** 68 ** 69 ** 83 62
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Liberals 61 ** 49 ** 36 ** 24 ** 23 ** 27 ** 19 13
Moderates 65 ** 47 ** 41 ** 36 ** 33 ** 37 ** 42 32
Conservatives 77 ** 68 ** 55 ** 55 ** 63 ** 64 ** 76 58

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 7C.4.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 02NOV15)