The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Had Contact with Congressional Candidate 1978-1994
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Incumbent Candidate'


  % OF GROUP: '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Males 76 79 78 80 78 81 78 79 76
Females 74 75 78 72 77 76 76 75 75
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Whites non-Hispanic 77 79 80 81 79 81 79 79 79
Black non-Hispanic 70 68 70 54 73 67 69 64 64
Hispanic 44 57 59 53 67 73 72 67 63
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 54 50 40 64 72 81 77 77 70
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 63 70 66 55 63 65 66 59 46
High School Diploma 73 75 77 74 76 75 75 72 70
Some College, no Degree 81 76 80 82 80 81 81 83 81
College Degree/ Post-grad 83 84 86 86 85 90 85 84 86
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Income 0-16 Percentile 66 71 69 66 67 68 68 67 63
Income 17-33 Percentile 70 77 74 69 80 79 72 72 73
Income 34-67 Percentile 79 78 81 79 78 80 80 82 77
Income 68-95 Percentile 83 80 85 81 83 84 84 82 81
Income 96-100 Percentile 80 76 80 83 88 82 83 79 91
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Professionals 83 81 83 86 84 84 86 82 84
White Collar 76 75 79 81 80 84 80 81 77
Blue Collar 71 75 75 71 74 72 72 74 70
Unskilled 67 77 65 70 67 71 71 79 71
Farmers 75 85 85 73 78 89 80 74 84
Housewives 76 73 78 69 73 76 77 67 72
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Union Households 77 78 79 79 80 79 80 81 80
Non-Union Households 75 76 78 75 77 78 77 76 74
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
South 68 78 81 73 77 77 74 75 75
Nonsouth 78 76 76 77 78 79 79 77 75
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 60 52
Born 1959-1974 63 62 68 61 69 71 69 72 76
Born 1943-1958 73 72 77 79 78 80 82 83 79
Born 1927-1942 79 81 81 81 83 82 81 79 76
Born 1911-1926 80 82 82 78 82 81 79 73 74
Born 1895-1910 73 82 75 64 66 77 72 58 54
Born before 1895 54 56 63 100 0 ** ** ** **
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Democrats (incl leaners) 76 77 78 76 78 80 80 77 74
Independents 64 67 66 67 66 65 64 68 55
Republicans (incl leaners) 80 79 83 78 81 80 78 79 83
  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94
Liberals 76 76 86 81 77 78 79 80 75
Moderates 78 80 83 79 80 84 81 76 79
Conservatives 82 80 83 82 84 84 83 82 83

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
....................

Table 8B.1.3
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)