The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Time of Presidential Election Vote Decision 1948-2004
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'During Conventions/ Post-Convention'


  % OF GROUP: '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Males 43 52 ** 32 ** 60 ** 48 ** 42 ** 46 ** 45 ** 36 ** 34 ** 50 ** 38 ** 33 ** 34 ** 31
Females 49 54 ** 29 ** 55 ** 45 ** 44 ** 39 ** 40 ** 32 ** 35 ** 51 ** 34 ** 28 ** 32 ** 27
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Whites non-Hispanic 46 53 ** 30 ** 59 ** 48 ** 43 ** 42 ** 43 ** 34 ** 35 ** 52 ** 36 ** 30 ** 35 ** 30
Black non-Hispanic 47 46 ** 28 ** 32 ** 34 ** 38 ** 42 ** 43 ** 30 ** 34 ** 49 ** 38 ** 34 ** 22 ** 29
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 25 ** 25 ** 36 ** 26 ** 32 ** 47 ** 35 ** 30 ** 31 ** 30
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 75 ** 56 ** 57 ** 29 ** 37 ** 43 ** 36 ** 23 ** 23 ** 30
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 39 44 ** 23 ** 50 ** 31 ** 32 ** 32 ** 38 ** 24 ** 31 ** 49 ** 32 ** 27 ** 21 ** 40
High School Diploma 49 56 ** 31 ** 61 ** 47 ** 42 ** 44 ** 41 ** 31 ** 36 ** 52 ** 33 ** 28 ** 38 ** 29
Some College, no Degree 55 64 ** 38 ** 61 ** 54 ** 44 ** 43 ** 44 ** 35 ** 35 ** 55 ** 39 ** 30 ** 32 ** 30
College Degree/ Post-grad ** 57 ** 36 ** 57 ** 59 ** 56 ** 44 ** 48 ** 41 ** 34 ** 47 ** 38 ** 34 ** 29 ** 28
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Income 0-16 Percentile 37 42 ** 27 ** 43 ** 29 ** 35 ** 35 ** 37 ** 34 ** 34 ** 45 ** 35 ** 29 ** 23 ** 31
Income 17-33 Percentile 40 51 ** 24 ** 62 ** 41 ** 45 ** 35 ** 39 ** 28 ** 34 ** 50 ** 34 ** 30 ** 40 ** 33
Income 34-67 Percentile 54 58 ** 35 ** 56 ** 49 ** 42 ** 45 ** 43 ** 33 ** 36 ** 50 ** 39 ** 29 ** 32 ** 32
Income 68-95 Percentile 45 56 ** 32 ** 60 ** 54 ** 47 ** 45 ** 43 ** 37 ** 34 ** 52 ** 35 ** 35 ** 36 ** 22
Income 96-100 Percentile 44 48 ** 26 ** 68 ** 51 ** 41 ** 39 ** 53 ** 40 ** 37 ** 53 ** 41 ** 31 ** 24 ** 26
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Professionals ** 55 ** 38 ** 67 ** 56 ** 48 ** 44 ** 46 ** 32 ** 33 ** 48 ** 38 ** 32 ** 32 ** 27
White Collar ** 63 ** 25 ** 58 ** 48 ** 40 ** 42 ** 47 ** 34 ** 34 ** 58 ** 37 ** 36 ** 34 ** 28
Blue Collar ** 47 ** 33 ** 53 ** 39 ** 40 ** 42 ** 40 ** 35 ** 36 ** 49 ** 36 ** 28 ** 33 ** 32
Unskilled ** 50 ** 24 ** 61 ** 32 ** 30 ** 50 ** 61 ** 41 ** 32 ** 36 ** 38 ** 17 ** 24 ** 27
Farmers ** 50 ** 23 ** 71 ** 29 ** 41 ** 35 ** 37 ** 28 ** 26 ** 40 ** 33 ** 30 ** 24 ** 46
Housewives ** 54 ** 27 ** 51 ** 48 ** 42 ** 39 ** 37 ** 26 ** 38 ** 52 ** 28 ** 20 ** 33 ** 21
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Union Households 44 49 ** 32 ** 55 ** 43 ** 41 ** 47 ** 43 ** 34 ** 39 ** 54 ** 36 ** 28 ** 37 ** 33
Non-Union Households 46 55 ** 30 ** 58 ** 48 ** 44 ** 41 ** 42 ** 33 ** 33 ** 50 ** 36 ** 31 ** 32 ** 28
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
South ** 54 ** 29 ** 66 ** 43 ** 33 ** 41 ** 45 ** 31 ** 31 ** 47 ** 33 ** 30 ** 29 ** 27
Nonsouth ** 53 ** 30 ** 55 ** 47 ** 46 ** 42 ** 42 ** 34 ** 36 ** 52 ** 37 ** 31 ** 35 ** 30
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 22 ** 35 ** 41 ** 36
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 36 ** 43 ** 52 ** 38 ** 34 ** 34 ** 27
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 60 ** 58 ** 46 ** 45 ** 35 ** 35 ** 50 ** 38 ** 32 ** 31 ** 31
Born 1927-1942 43 65 ** 37 ** 63 ** 52 ** 44 ** 45 ** 45 ** 39 ** 34 ** 53 ** 37 ** 25 ** 34 ** 23
Born 1911-1926 52 58 ** 32 ** 60 ** 50 ** 42 ** 42 ** 42 ** 28 ** 30 ** 49 ** 32 ** 27 ** 28 ** 24
Born 1895-1910 43 54 ** 29 ** 56 ** 41 ** 38 ** 32 ** 34 ** 24 ** 30 ** 51 ** 14 ** 36 ** 15 ** **
Born before 1895 47 39 ** 25 ** 46 ** 25 ** 33 ** 25 ** 33 ** 20 ** 100 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Democrats (incl leaners) ** 53 ** 32 ** 53 ** 44 ** 41 ** 42 ** 42 ** 33 ** 37 ** 51 ** 42 ** 30 ** 32 ** 31
Independents ** 50 ** 34 ** 64 ** 42 ** 35 ** 50 ** 41 ** 36 ** 36 ** 47 ** 28 ** 29 ** 43 ** 29
Republicans (incl leaners) ** 55 ** 27 ** 61 ** 51 ** 47 ** 40 ** 43 ** 34 ** 31 ** 51 ** 30 ** 32 ** 32 ** 28
  '48 '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 41 ** 47 ** 42 ** 40 ** 49 ** 40 ** 28 ** 34 ** 26
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 42 ** 42 ** 35 ** 36 ** 53 ** 40 ** 35 ** 34 ** 35
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 46 ** 45 ** 37 ** 30 ** 51 ** 33 ** 30 ** 34 ** 25

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
....................

Table 9A.3.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)