- APPENDIX  B -

                                pilot studies



NES Pilot study results are used for planning subsequent time-series
(biennial) NES studies. Except for 1979, all NES Pilot studies have
been conducted by telephone on a subsample of respondents from the
preceding time series study [EXCEPTION:  THE 1979 PILOT WAS CONDUCTED
IN PERSON ON AN INDEPENDENT RANDOM SAMPLE].

Data have been collected in 2 waves in all Pilot studies except 1991
and 1993 [1 wave each].  Several forms of questionnaires are used in
all Pilot study administrations:  forms A and B in
1979,1983,1985,1987; forms A, B, C and D in 1989; forms 1,2,3 in 1991;
forms A, A1, B and B1 in 1993 (ALSO CALLED FORMS 1,2,3,4 ACCORDING TO
THEIR CODING).
                                    -----




                              1979 PILOT STUDY 

Dataset

     928 variables and 280 respondents.   Wave II vars are padded with
     missing data codes for 44 cases without reinterviews.  117 vars
     represent questions unique to form A, and 120 vars represent
     questions unique to form B.  All other questions are present in
     both forms A and B, however with considerable differences between
     forms in question order.  Variables combine data from questions
     administered in both wave I and wave II (variables not wave-
     specific).

Experiments

     -    Ratings of "republicans" and "democrats" were compared with
          ratings of "republican party" and "democratic party."

     -    In the feeling thermometers, use of a minimally-labeled
          thermometer (0, 50, 100 degrees) was compared with a
          thermometer labeled at nine points.

     -    In the issues sections, branching format was compared with a
          7-point scale, and alternate wordings and differing salience
          measures were compared.  

     -    New material included social network questions, personal
          goals, "images" of political leaders (open-ended
          description), partisan images and affective preferences
          (rating of 'democrats,' 'republicans,' 'independents,' and
          self on various scales), conception of ideal president and
          evaluation of candidates according to ideal standard, causes
          and cures of inflation/ unemployment, party id close-ended
          definitions, preferential voting (rating Presidential
          candidates), and possible candidates - sources of
          information.




1979    [con't]

                 VAR #        DESCRIPTION

                   3 - 8      Processing vars wave I
                   9 -14      Processing vars wave II
                 15 -45       Demographics
                 46 -90       Social network
                91-100        Goals:  personal and U.S.
               101            Liberal/conservative self-placement
               102-106        Past voting behavior
               107-116        Interest in politics, media use
               117-134        Thermometers
               135-144        Candidate preference (R likes
                              most/least), which cands R would vote
                              for
               145-179        Party likes/dislikes and party system
                              support
               180-221        Partisan images
               222-270        Party identification and support
               271-348        Issues Wave I
               349-438        Issues Wave II
               439-492        Important problems
               493-557        Media information & discussions about
                              possible presidential
                                candidates
               558-575        Personal and national economic outlook;
                              Carter economic
                                performance
               576-596        Inflation and taxes:  policy and
                              personal impact
               597-619        Inflation:  causes and cures
               620-640        Unemployment:  causes and cures
               641-672        Conception of ideal President
               673-800        Candidate traits, evaluations of
                              candidates using ideal model
               801-848        Candidate likes/dislikes
               849-928        Candidate affects and images








                              1983 PILOT STUDY 

Dataset

     404 variables, a subsample of 314 respondents from the 1982
     National Election Study (initially stratified by degree of
     interest in politics, then by degree of urbanicity).   Wave II
     variables are padded with missing-data codes for 40 cases without
     reinterview.  94 vars represent questions unique to form A or
     form B, and 4 vars represent the liberal/conservative self-
     placement experiment (see below.)  All other questions are
     present in both forms A and B with identical question-numbering
     and sequencing.

New Items

     New items include questions on economic well-being, group
     identification, values, political participation, and candidate
     affect.




                                                               1983    [con't]


Experiment

     -    Liberal/conservative self-placement on a seven-point scale
          (form A) is compared with liberal/conservative self-
          placement, branching format (form B.)


               VAR #          DESCRIPTION

                      wave I
               2001-2007      Processing vars.
               2101-2102      Evaluation of presidential performance
               2103-2128 Financial condition, personal and national
               2129-2139 Personal impact of economy
               2140-2166 Economic group identification; economic
                         conditions of groups
               2169-2178 Values
               2182-2199 Feeling thermometers
               2200-2203 Party identification
               2204-2207 Political participation
               2208-2219 Candidate affects
               2220-2249 Candidate traits
               2250-2258 Values
               2259-2319 Candidate traits
               2321-2356 Personal
               
                      wave II
               3001-3008 Processing vars
               3101-3103 Candidate preferences
               3104-3107 Liberal/conservative self-placement
               3108-3119 Political group identification; impact of
                         group on R
               3120-3125 Values
               3128-3165 Candidate traits
               3166-3190 Gender discrimination
               3192-3206 Attitudes:  gender equality (form A)/ racial
                         equality (form B)
               3208-3215 ERA, school integration, government services
               3216-3227 Attitudes:  gender equality (form A)/ racial
                         equality (form B)

















                              1985 PILOT STUDY 

Dataset

     511 variables and 429 respondents.  Eligible 1984 time-series
     respondents were stratified by political interest before a cross-
     section sample was drawn; in addition, respondents over 60 years
     old were over-sampled to ensure at least 100 respondents in that
     age group (var 7004 filters cross-section from over-sample). 
     Wave II variables are padded with missing-data codes for 84 cases
     without reinterviews.  42 vars represent questions unique to form
     A or form B.  20 vars represent identical questions for which
     form A placement differs from form B placement (see below).  All
     other questions were present in both forms A and B with identical
     question-numbering and sequencing.

Special Content

     Content areas emphasized are:  political knowledge; group
     membership; identification of elderly, black, and women
     respondents with these social groupings; opinions on racial
     issues; and opinions on traditional moral values.

Experiments

     Form A respondents were asked Ronald Reagan and Ted Kennedy issue
     placements (for branching format Central American policy and for
     branching format government help to blacks) immediately after
     their own placements, while form B respondents were asked the
     same Reagan and Kennedy issue placements at the end of the
     interview.  Other form A/B experiments involved differences in
     wording and question format on issues of civic responsibilities,
     affirmative action, and inflation and cost-of-living.


               VAR #             DESCRIPTION

                        wave I
               7001-7011    Study procedures
               7082-7094    Study procedures
               7101-7106    Moral traditionalism
               7107-7110    Party identification
               7111,8539,8425    Decision-making in R's life
               7113-7137    Representative/senator:  contact,
                            performance, issue stands, official
                              posts, why s/he "stands out"
               7201-7228    Protest activities
               7229-7240    Federal budget priorities
               7301-7308    Central American policy
               7309-7318    Government aid to blacks
               7320-7326    Series for the elderly
               7327-7331    Series for women
               7332-7333    Series for the elderly
               7334-7337    Series for women
               7401-7410    Civic responsibilities
               7411-7419    Equal opportunity (racial):  government
                         role
               7420-7427    Affirmative action
               7428-7437    Affirmative action issue:  R affect
               7501-7502    Inflation
               7503-7504    Cost of living
               7505-7507    Balanced budget constitutional amendment
               7508,7509    Unemployment, the death penalty
               7510-7519    Race relations issue:  R affect



                                                               1985    [con't]

               VAR #             DESCRIPTION

               7520-7533    Work status, conditions
               7534-7543    Central American Policy
               7544-7553    Government aid to blacks

                       wave II
               8001-8006    Study procedures
               8082-8091    Study procedures
               8101-8110    Moral traditionalism
               8111-8146    Feeling thermometers
               8147-8149    Reagan approval, evaluation
               8201-8207    Equality/ equal opportunity
               8208-8211    Liberal/conservative self-placement
               8212-8226    Reasons why blacks are disadvantaged,
                            evaluation of blacks' status
               8227-8234    Social status of various groups
               8235-8245    Reasons for poverty
               8301-8306    Series for women
               8307-8308,8312    Series for the elderly
               8309-8311    Series for women
               8314-8333    Civic responsibilities
               8334-8339    Affirmative action
               8401-8406    Equality/ equal opportunity
               8407-8408    R's neighborhood:  how many elderly,
                            likelihood of school busing
               8409-8412    Opportunities for whites/blacks
               8413-8424    Evaluation of Reagan performance (SEE 7111
                            for 8425)
               8426-8431    Economic positions of R/ women/ the
                            elderly
               8501-8514    Political knowledge:  individuals and
                            domestic issues
               8515-8521    Party alignments of individuals and groups
               8522-8527    Political knowledge:  foreign relations
               8528-8538    Work status, conditions (SEE 7111 for
                            8539)
               8540-8541    Affirmative action
               8601-8660    Organizational membership, support and
                            activity







                              1987 PILOT STUDY 

Dataset

     1345 variables (363 fixed-response, 982 open-ended) and 457
     respondents.  Eligible respondents from the 1986 pre-post
     National Election Study were stratified for voter knowledge and
     interest, and strata sampling rates were calculated to compensate
     for differences in anticipated response rates (a "standard"
     sample subset is obtainable by using var 2317 as a filter).  639
     vars (599 open-ended) represent questions unique to form A, and
     341 vars (313 open-ended) represent questions unique to form B. 
     All other questions were present in both form A and form B,
     however with numerous differences in sequencing and question-
     numbering between forms.  

Experiments

     -    3 domestic policy items (government spending/services,
          government guaranteed jobs/standard of living, government
          aid to blacks) were used to elicit information about "what
          was on people's minds" concerning these issues.  Form A
          respondents were asked to "talk about" each issue (open-
          ended) just after answering a fixed-response question about
          the issue.  Form B respondents were asked to give their
          thoughts about each issue BEFORE answering a fixed-response
          question about the issue.  Up to 12 variables are coded to
          describe R's open-ended response regarding each of the 3
          policy items, using the following 4 measures (up to 3
          comments each):  direction of comment, frame of reference &
          specific content, intensity, complexity of thought.

     -    In both waves, feeling thermometers were placed near the
          beginning of the interview for form A respondents, but near
          the end of the interview for form B respondents.  

     -    The question, "did you vote in the 1986 elections for U.S.
          Congress last November?" appeared in both form A and form B,
          but it was preceded in form B only with the more general
          question, "thinking back over the last four national
          elections, that is the presidential elections of 1980 and
          1984 and the Congressional elections of 1982 and 1986, did
          you vote in any of these elections?"

     -    Framing:  welfare items were asked within a "poverty" frame
          in form A, within in a "welfare" frame in form B.


               VAR #             DESCRIPTION

                       wave 1
               2001-2141    Study procedures
               2151-2155    Reagan approval and performance on economy
               2157-2171    Thermometers
               2172-2175    Nationalism
               2176-2179    Equality
               2180-2183    Party ID
               2184-2191    Reagan traits
               2192-2197    Moral traditionalism
               2198-2202         Roles of U.S. representatives
               2203-2209    Welfare and poverty
               2210         Which party can handle the economy
               2211-2214    Reagan affects
               2215-2217    Liberal/conservative
               2218         Government spending/services
               2220-2227    Morality
               2245         Strength of U.S. military (GAP)


                                                               1987    [con't]


               VAR #             DESCRIPTION

               2246-2249,2267    Central America (GAP)
               2268         Party to avoid war
               2269         Guaranteed job/standard of living
               2270-2274    Party ID
               2275-2278    Deficit and Contra aid spending, military
                            Contra aid
               2279         Government aid to blacks
               2281-2282    Reagan performance as president
               2283-2287    Roles of U.S. senators
               2288-2289    Did R vote in past/in 1986
               2290         Government spending/services
               2292         Guaranteed job/standard of living
               2294-2298    Party ID
               2299-2300    Taxes, inflation
               2301         Government aid to blacks
               2303         Liberal/conservative
               2309-2312    Welfare
               3001-3005    Study procedures
               3006-3010    Party ID (GAP)
               3101-3147    Government spending/services (GAP)
               3201-3251    Government spending/services (GAP)
               3301-3347    Guaranteed job/standard of living (GAP)
               3401-3451    Guaranteed job/standard of living (GAP)
               3501-3547    Government aid to blacks (GAP)
               3601-3651    Government aid to blacks (GAP)
               3701-3729    Reagan performance as president (GAP)
               3801-3845    Government spending/services (GAP)
               3901-3945    Guaranteed job/standard of living (GAP)
               4001-4061    Government aid to blacks

                       wave 2
               5001-5141    Study procedures (GAP)
               5151-5158    Patriotism
               5159-5168    Thermometers
               5169-5175    Trust and efficacy of the political system
               5176-5179    Party ID
               5180-5183    Morality
               5184-5193    Roles of U.S. representatives and senators
               5194-5205    Knowledge about candidates
               5210-5213    Liberal/conservative
               5214,5215    Homosexuals and abortion
               5216-5223    Trust and efficacy of the political system
               5224         Government aid to blacks
               5225         Government spending/services
               5226-5228    Morality
               5229-5265    Foreign policy
               5266         Guaranteed job/standard of living
               5267-5278    Internal political efficacy, trust of the
                            political system
               5282-5284    Economic position of blacks
               5285         Women's role
               5286-5293    National and state level party ID



1987    [con't]

               VAR #             DESCRIPTION

               5294-5297    Reagan performanace on taxes, inflation,
                            as president
               5300,5301    Party ID
               5303-5306    Liberal/Conservative
               5307         Government aid to blacks
               5308         Guaranteed job/standard ofliving
               5309         Government spending/services
               5310-5313    Deficit and Contra aid spending, military
                            aid
               5315-5325    Trust and efficacy of political system
               5326         Homosexuals
               5327         Party ID
               5330         Internal political efficacy
               6006-6010    Party ID (GAP)
               6101-6147    Guaranteed job/standard of living (GAP)
               6201-6253    Guaranteed job/standard of living (GAP)
               6301-6347    Government spending/services (GAP)
               6401-6453    Government spending/services (GAP)
               6501-6547    Government aid to blacks (GAP)
               6601-6653    Government aid to blacks














                              1989 PILOT STUDY 

Dataset

     633 variables and 614 respondents.  Eligible respondents of the
     1988 pre-post National Election Study were stratified for voter
     knowledge, using a Political Information Index modeled on the
     index used in 1987, and  strata sampling rates were calculated to
     compensate for differences in anticipated response rates.  A
     "standard" sample subset is obtained by using variable 7012 as a
     filter. 

     Unlike previous pilot studies, 4 forms (A, B, C, D) rather than 2
     were used.  Forms A-D appear both in Wave I and Wave II.

New Items

     This Pilot Study includes new measures of:   religious identity
     and political salience of religion;  media exposure and type of
     information recalled;  individualism items (autonomy, self-
     reliance, laissez-faire or limited government);  gun control; 
     abortion;  the Alaska oil spill.  





                                                               1989    [con't]


Experiments

     Numerous experiments contrasted different instrumentation for
     issue questions:  seven-point scales versus branching format,
     alternate frames, framed versus 'stripped' questions, unipolar
     versus bipolar scales, labeled versus unlabeled scales, filtered
     ("...or haven't you thought much about this?") versus unfiltered
     questions.  For the feeling thermometers, a ten-point scale was
     compared with the usual 100-point scale.

               VAR #          DESCRIPTION

                       wave 1
               7001-7020 Study procedures (GAP)
               7151      Interest in politics
               7152-7166 Reagan retrospective:  approve/disapprove,
                         like/dislike job as President
               7167-7192 Recall:  House, Senate candidates *
               7201-7260 Thermometers (GAP) &
               7270-7287 Contact:  House, Senate incumbents *$
               7288-7291 Did R vote in 1988 presidential election &
                         for whom $
               7301-7307 Liberal/conservative @#
               7308-7311 Affirmative action +
               7312-7314 Stealth bomber +\
               7315-7321 Federal budget
               7322-7330 Women's rights ~
               7331      Defense spending ^
               7332      Central America ^
               7333      Gun control ^
               7334-7336 Party ID ^
               7337-7341 Defense spending !
               7342-7346 Central America !
               7347-7351 Gun control !
               7352-7355 Party ID !
               7356-7363 no. days & attention to news on TV/in
                         newspapers $
               7364-7369 Individualism
               7401      Abortion \
               7402-7405 Cooperation with Russia \
               7406-7408 ERA
               7409-7411 Welfare +
               7412-7414 Alaska oil drilling +\
               7415-7417 Death penalty +\
               7418-7420 Drug testing +\
               7421-7422 Contra aid +\
               7424-2427 Government aid to blacks \
               7428-7429 Aids research +
               7431-7435 Affirmative action $
               7436-7444 Media exposure, type of exposure $
               7445-7448 Media exposure, type of exposure
               7449-7480 Media stories recognition and recall
               7501-7506 Limited and laissez-faire government





1989    [con't]

               VAR #          DESCRIPTION

                        wave 2
               8001-8009 Study procedures (GAP)
               8101-8124 Media exposure, type of exposure $
               8125-8130 Women's rights ~
               8131-8133 Stealth bomber +\
               8134-8160 Religious identity, background, practice and
                         ideology
               8201-8243 Religious identity, background, practice and
                         ideology
               8301-8362 Religious identity, background, practice and
                         ideology
               8401-8407 Liberal/conservative @#
               8408-8411 Affirmative action $
               8412-8417 Defense spending ^!
               8418-8423 Central America ^!
               84424-8429     Gun control ^!
               8430-8436 Party ID ^!
               8437-8443 Media exposure, type of exposure $
               8444-8447 Type of newspaper stories
               8448-8453 Social welfare ~
               8501-8512 Social welfare ~
               8513-8518 Abortion, parental consent
               8519-8529 Government intervention and individual self-
                         sufficiency/self-determinism
               8530-8533 Cooperation with Russia \
               8534      Abortion \
               8535-8536 Contra aid +\
               8538-8540 Welfare spending +
               8541-8543 Alaska oil drilling +\
               8544-8546 Dealth penalty +\
               8547-8549 Drug testing +\
               8550-8553 Government aid to blacks \
               8554-8555 Aids +
               8601-8630 Media stories recognition and recall
               8631-8636 Social welfare ~
               8637-8644 Religious leaders speaking out on
                         social/political issues
               8647-8650 Religious practice including religious media
                         exposure

                                     
   key to symbols:

*    part of question-order experiment
&    10-point versus 100-point experiment
$    question wording experiment
@    part of 7-point scale versus branching experiment
#    alternate label experiment
+    part of framing experiment
\    part of framed versus 'stripped' experiment
~    part of unipolar versus bipolar experiment
^    part of filtered versus unfiltered (unlabeled) 7-point scale
     experiment
!    Part of filtered versus unfiltered labeled branching format
     experiment





                              1991 PILOT STUDY 



     The interviews administered in the 1991 Pilot also constitute the
     second wave of the 3-wave NES "Political Consequences of War"
     panel (which is represented in the main body of the Continuity
     Guide).  The 1991 Pilot Study/ Panel data file also contains 1990
     NES post variables (wave 1 of the panel).  The Pilot portion of
     the data file contains 386 vars [excl. some contextual vars].

     1385 telephone interviews were conducted June 4- July 31, 1991
     with 1990 post respondents.  Interview length was limited to
     approximately 40 minutes, however the design of the
     questionnaires accomodated 30 minutes for the panel component and
     30 minutes of new instrumentation (pilot):  new instrumentation
     was divided into 3 forms of 10 minutes apiece.  Form assignment
     was based on respondent's assignment to Form A/B in the 1990
     post-election study.  Two-thirds of 1990 Form A respondents were
     assigned to Form One, and two-thirds of 1990 Form B respondents
     were assigned to Form Two.  The remaining respondents were
     assigned to Form Three.  Partitioning into thirds of 1990 Form A
     and Form B respondents was random.  Form assignment is summarized
     as follows:

    FRACTION OF 1990 RESPONDENTS,           ASSIGNED TO:  1991  PILOT FORM
    1990 FORM CONTENT                       1991 PILOT FORM CONTENT
                                                          

    2/3 Form A -   values (individualism,   ===>  Form One -
                   equalitarianism, racial           immigration-related
                   attitudes, etc.)                  component
                                                            
    1/3 Form A -   as above                 ===>  Form Three - social network,
                                                     political knowledge, Social
                                                     Security/Medicaid/elderly
                                                     medical care, nuclear power
                                                     and endangered species

    2/3 Form B -   partisan differences,    ===>  Form Two -
                   foreign policy,                   gender-related componet
                   "women's role" scale

    1/3 Form B -   as above                 ===>  Form Three - as above


     A small response-incentives experiment was also implemented. 
     Respondents with good mailing addresses and telephones were
     divided into 4 roughly-equal groups:  1) those who received no
     advance communication from NES;  2) those who received a letter
     saying that an interviewer would be calling for an interview
     shortly;  3) those who received the advance letter and a pen with
     a University of Michigan logo;  4) those who received the advance
     letter and $1.

     Question content is as follows:

               VAR #          DESCRIPTION

               1-711          1990 Post vars
               2002-2070 Pilot/panel processing vars
               2100-2111 Why R would vote for/against Bush in 1992
                         (open-end)
               2112-2123 Approve/disapprove Bush presidency, on
                         economy and foreign
                            relations
               2200-2264 Thermometers and probes
               2300-2303 Approve/disapprove Congress
               2304-2316 Party differences (open-end)
               2317-2328 Approve/disapprove Representative and
                         senators
               2329-2333 Party ID
               2334-2338 Most important problem facing U.S.



1991    [con't]

               VAR #          DESCRIPTION

               2400-2409 Foreign policy
               2410-2413 Approve/disapprove Bush on Persian Gulf
                         policy
               2414-2416 Party differences on issues
               2417-2418 Patriotism
               2450-2454 Liberal/conservatives scales
               2455-2462 Nation's/R's economic condition
               2475-2478 Defense spending scale
               2479      If House race were now, who would R vote for
               2480      Congressional term limitations
               2481-2486 War, the military, U.S. position in world,
                         isolationism
               2487-2489 Trust in government
               2500-2557 "Consequences of War"  Persian Gulf items
               2558-2563 Preferential hiring and promotion of blacks
               2580      Attention to religious programming
               2600      Government services/spending, 7-pt. scale 
                         (FORM ONE)
               2601-2630 Immigration/ethnic diversity issues  (FORM
                         ONE)
               2700      Government services/spending, 7-pt. scale
                         with example (health and
                            education)  (FORM TWO)
               2701-2733 Gender-related issues  (FORM TWO)
               2800-2803 Government services/spending, branching
                         format  (FORM THREE)
               2804-2810 Nuclear power plants, pollution and
                         endangered species vs. protecting
                            jobs (FORM THREE)
               2811-2827 Social Security/Medicare/medical care for
                         elderly  (FORM THREE)
               2828-2847 Social network (FORM THREE)
               2848-2854 Political knowledge (FORM THREE)
               2900-2926 Contextual data





                              1993 PILOT STUDY 


     The interviews of the 1993 Pilot also constitute the third wave
     of the 4-wave Panel Study on "Securing Electoral Success."  The
     1993 Pilot/Panel data file includes the 1992 Pre and Post
     election variables (which comprise waves 1 and 2).

     Telephone interviews were conducted September 23-November 24,
     1993; eligible for interviewing were all of the 1,005 so-called
     'Cross-section' respondents** from the 1992 National Election
     study:  all 1,005 respondents are included in the 1993
     Pilot/Panel data file whether they granted a 1993 Pilot/Panel
     interview or not.  As in the 1991 Pilot, approximately 40 minutes
     were budgeted for interviewing.  The 4 forms were randomly
     assigned.


     EXPERIMENTAL CONTENT.

     Ballot card.   Half of the respondents were supplied with the
                    names as well as the parties of the candidates for
                    Congress (emulating the Ballot card) when asked
                    for whom they voted; the other half were simply
                    asked whether they voted for the Democrat or
                    Republican.  This design was included to help
                    determine whether use of the ballot card
                    contributes to over-reporting (V7185, V7283).

     Wording.  Description of the Clinton package as "budget package"
               or "deficit reduction package" (V7200).

     Probing.  Certainty probe on liberal-conservative scale for self
               placement and placement of political objects (V7208,
               7211, 7216, 7219, 7221, 7223).

     Placement.     Ordering self placement on the liberal-
                    conservative 7-point scale before and after
                    placement of political object [Clinton] (V7205-
                    7219).

     Followup. Opinion held "strongly/not strongly" or "a
               lot/some(what)" (V7262,7266,7291,7294,7300, 7303).

     Order (series).     Order of evaluations changed in the 'interest
                         basis of politics' section (V7374-7422),
                         wherein R evaluates the effects of a
                         government policy upon list of objects: 
                         (Forms 1,2) upon self, various social groups,
                         country-as-a-whole;  (Forms 3,4) upon
                         country-as-a-whole, various social groups,
                         self.


     NEW CONTENT.

     Interest basis of political attitudes (V7371-7422).  Questions
     are asked about perceived interests of several groups-- wealthy,
     poor, middle class, blacks, whites-- as well as interest of self
     and national interest.  Three domains are covered:  national
     health insurance, affirmative action (half sample), and school
     choice (half sample).

     Attitudes toward homosexuals (V7289-7294, 7336-7365).  These
     questions include:

          - parents should encourage boys to be masculine and girls to
          be feminine
          - homosexuality is a matter of choice
          - homosexuals try to seduce non-homosexuals
          - idea of homosexuality is disgusting or uncomfortable
          - worry about getting AIDS/other disease from homosexuals
          - homosexuality is unnatural
          - homosexuals have too much/little influence
          - homosexuality is against the will of God 



1993    [con't]


     Attitudes toward policies relating to homosexuals (V7324-7335). 
     These questions include:

          - favor/oppose laws protecting homosexuals from job
          discrimination
          - whether homosexuals should serve in the military
          - should homosexual couples be allowed to adopt children



     ** NOTE:  ALTHOUGH THE ENTIRE 1992 SAMPLE COMPRISES A NATIONAL
     CROSS-SECTION, 
     IT WAS NECESSARY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CASES WHERE THE
     RESPONDENT HAD
     BEEN INTERVIEWED PREVIOUSLY (IN 1990 AND POSSIBLY 1991, "PANEL"
     CASES) 
     FROM FRESH CASES DRAWN FROM THE SAME SAMPLE FRAME ("CROSS-
     SECTION" 
     CASES).

     _________________________________________________________________
     _________________________________________



     IT SHOULD ALSO BE NOTED THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME, AUTOQUEST WAS
     USED TO RANDOMIZE THE ORDER OF ITEMS LISTED IN THE FEELING
     THERMOMETER SECTION.  (ALTHOUGH IT IS RECOGNIZED THAT RESPONSES
     ARE FREQUENTLY AFFECTED BY THE RESPONSES TO PREVIOUS ITEMS, IT IS
     NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY A SINGLE ORDER WHICH ELIMINATES THE
     EFFECT).  HOWEVER, NO INFORMATION ABOUT THE ORDER IN WHICH THE
     THERMOMETER ITEMS WERE ASKED FOR A GIVEN RESPONDENT WAS
     PRESERVED.



     VARIABLES IN PILOT DATA:

     7000-7026 Study procedures/administration
     7101-7120 Clinton performance evaluation (job as President,
               economy, relations with foreign
                  countries, homosexuals in the military, Bosnia)
     7121-7129 House candidate recall
     7130-7149 Feeling thermometers
     7150      Does R know who founded United We Stand
     7151-7160 Probes for thermometers
     7161      If R voted today for President, for whom would R vote
     7162-7173 Likes/dislikes about R's Representataive
     7174-7183 Contact from Representative
     7184      Did R vote in November (FORMS 1,3)
     7185      For whom did R vote in November for House race (FORMS
               1,3)
     7186-7190 R's/family's/friend's initiated contact with
               Represented
     7191-7194 Approve/disapprove of Representative
     7195-7199 Representative's support of Clinton's proposals
     7200-7202 Representative's support of Clinton's deficit
               reduction/ budget package
     7203      Representative keeping in touch with district
     7204-7208 Liberal-conservative self-placement (FORMS 1,2)
     7209-7211 Liberal-conservative Clinton placement (FORMS 1,2)
     7212-7216 Liberal-conservative Clinton placement (FORMS 3,4)
     7217-7219 Liberal-conservative self-placement (FORMS 3,4)
     7220-7221 Liberal-conservative Perot placement
     7222-7223 Liberal-conservative Representative placement
     7224-7225 Liberal-conservative Democratic Party, Republican party
               placements
     7226-7230 Clinton traits
     7231-7235 Perot traits



                                                               1993    [con't]


     7236      Country going in right direction/ on wrong track
     7237      U.S. position in world
     7238-7241 R's financial condition in past year
     7242-7245 R's financial condition in next year
     7246-7249 Will taxes go up/down in next year
     7250-7253 National economy's condition in past year
     7254-7258 Economic policies have made nation's economy
               better/worse
     7259      National economy in next year
     7260      Standard of living 20 years from now better/same/worse
     7261-7266 Effects of free trade on U.S.
     7267-7270 Clinton affects
     7271-7274 Perot affects
     7275      Better to have parties of Congress and President same
               or split
     7276-7277 Proportions of Clinton tax increases/spending cuts
     7278-7281 Party performance on issues
     7282      Did R vote past November (FORMS 2,4)
     7283      For whom did R vote in November for House race (FORMS
               2,4)
     7284-7288 NAFTA approval/disapproval
     7289-7294 Gender socialization
     7295-7296 Does R think of self as independent
     7297-7303 Approval of Congress
     7304      How much attention do elected Senators and
               Representatives pay to electorate
     7305-7311 Various agree/disagree items:  support of the political
               system
     7312-7314 United We Stand America/ Perot contact and support
     7315-7323 'Budget politics:'  taxes/services/spending
     7324-7335 Policies relating to homosexuals
     7336-7365 Attitudes toward homosexuals
     7366-7370 R's party ID
     7371-7373 Opinion on government's role in health insurance
     7374-7384 Interest basis of political attitudes - national health
               insurance
     7385-7404 Interest basis of political attitudes - school choice
               (FORMS 1,2)
     7405-7422 Interest basis of political attitudes - affirmative
               action (FORMS 3,4)