The document "Background Information on the ANES 2008 Time Series Questionnaires" provides a general overview of the ANES 2008 Time Series questionnaire development process and describes rationales for questionnaire changes and new items.

Links below lead to various articles written by the ANES 2008 Time Series Principle Investigators reflecting the factual and theoretical foundations upon which the PIs drew when soliciting proposals through the Online Commons, working with the Board of Overseers to review the many interesting proposals received, and making final decisions on how to filter the various recommendations into the final questionnaire.

It is the hope of the ANES 2008 Time Series Principle Investigators that the information available here will clarify important properties of the 2008 Time Series data, as well as provide a stronger foundation for future debate and scholarship on ANES and other election survey questionnaires. If you have comments or questions on any of these matters please send them to us at

Articles selected by the 2008 Principle Investigators on: How to Optimize or Improve Questionnaires

Krosnick, J. A., & Fabrigar, L. R. 1997. Designing rating scales for effective measurement in surveys. In L. Lyberg, P. Biemer, M. Collins, L. Decker, E. DeLeeuw, C. Dippo, N. Schwarz, and D. Trewin (Eds.), Survey Measurement and Process Quality. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Krosnick, J.A. 2002. The causes of no-opinion responses to attitude measures in surveys:They rarely are what they appear to be. In R.M. Groves, D.A. Dillman, J.L. Eltinge, and R.J.A. Little (Eds.).Survey Nonresponse. New York: Wiley, 88-100.

Malhotra, N., Krosnick, J. A., and Thomas, R. K. 2007. Optimal design of branching questions to measure bipolar constructs. Public Opinion Quarterly, 71, E485-E518

Krosnick, J. A. 1999. Survey research. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 537-567

Articles selected by the 2008 Principle Investigators on: How to Optimize or Improve Questionnaire Development Procedures

Kenyatha V. Loftis and Arthur Lupia. 2008. Using the Internet to Create Research Opportunities: The New Virtual Communities of TESS and the American National Election Studies. PS: Political Science and Politics 41: 547-550.

Arthur Lupia. 2008. Procedural Transparency and the Credibility of Election Surveys. Electoral Studies, 27, 732-739.